The Impact of Electronic Broadcasting Media on the Music Industry

Abstract

Electronic media broadcasting plays a humble yet imperative role in the music industry: simply bringing music to the masses.

The aim of this blog post is to research and discuss one aspect of music technology of particular personal interest. I have chosen to look deeper into the media side of the music world and discuss one technological aspect of electronic media broadcasting- radio in its analog and digital format, in context of its impact on the music listening consumer and ultimately, the recorded music industry.

Firstly the development of music radio from pirate to Internet and digital broadcasting is explained. This blog also discusses the impact of traditional radio play on record sales, investigating the symbiotic relationship between the two industries. Finally, the subject of the impact of the iPod/MP3 player on the radio industry is raised and discussed.

Introduction; The Beginnings Of Electronic Broadcasting and the Fathers Of Radio.

Electronic broadcasting began in 1881 with telephone broadcasting as a result of the invention of the Théâtrophone (“Theatre Phone”) system. French electrical innovator Clément Ader invented the telephone-based distribution system, which transmitted live opera and theatre performances in stereo over telephone lines to subscribers located more than two miles away.

It developed into a system, which not only played music but also news bulletins and entertainment and was widely popular in Paris until 1932, when the théâtrophone officially succumbed to the rising popularity of radio transmissions and the phonograph.

Above: The Théâtrophone. (Bowblog, 2011)

A similar telephone-distributed audio system called the Electrophone was popular in London from 1895 until 1926. According to an article by British Telephones online (2010), the service was provided in the listener’s home at £5 a year. Alternatively listeners could pay via a coin-in-the-slot machine. Because the electrophone was technically complex with its hard-wired system, radio was called “The Wireless” for many years.

Above: Electrophone users enjoying a theatre scene in 1908. (British Telephones, 2010).

Although no man alone can claim the title of the founding father of radio, it is generally accepted that Nikola Tesla, Guglielmo Marconi, Alex Armstrong, Lee deForest, Reginald Fessenden, Edwin Armstrong contributed to the invention and development of radio.

While the theatre telephone communications were popular, radio frequency energy was born as a result of experiments being carried out by Nikola Tesla. Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi built a wireless system capable of transmitting long distance signals and in 1901, the first successful transatlantic communication was conducted.

Fundamental improvements enabling clearer and stronger transmission quality were made slowly to this early radio technology. These included Ernst Alexanderson’s high frequency alternator and Lee deForest’s three-element vacuum tube, called the Audion, which amplified signals and generated oscillations.

On Christmas Eve 1906 Reginald Fessenden made the first AM radio broadcast where he made a short speech and played the first music ever heard on communication equipment. Ships at sea heard a rendition of “O Holy Night” which he played on his violin and a reading from the Bible.

With good quality, wireless long-distance transmission now invented, the radio was ready for commercial broadcasting.

The Development of British Music Radio

The Golden Age of Radio (1920’s to 1950’s)

In the beginning of commercial and public radio, AM (amplitude modulation) broadcasting was the first means of delivering sound on a radio signal.

Independent commercial company, the BBC (British Broadcasting Company,) began its licensed radio services in 1922 and this new way of delivering news bulletins and music was exciting and revolutionary at the time. Andrew explains online that:

 In 1920, the idea of plucking a voice or music out of the air from hundreds or even thousands of miles away had a magical quality that is difficult for us to imagine given the technological advances since then. . .Never had anything caught the imagination of the science-oriented youth the way AM/FM radio did. Recently we saw the same type of enthusiasm take hold with the proliferation of personal computers and the Internet. Back then AM/FM radio was just as radical to most people as the computer may have been to the older generation recently. (Andrew, 2012)

Radio became popular quickly and programming became very important. Scottish engineer John Reith became Managing Director of the BBC in 1923 and he proposed the BBC’s mission must be “to enrich people’s lives with programmes and services that inform, educate and entertain” (BBC, 2012).

Above: The rising popularity of radio. (Wired, 2008).

On December 31st 1926 the BBC’s license expired and the company was replaced with a public authority, becoming the British Broadcasting Corporation with the granting of its first 10 year Royal Charter. The BBC continued to broadcast talks, varieties and concerts but it was not allowed transmit news bulletins until after 7pm (after the newspapers of the day had been sold), in an effort to save newspaper sales.

During the 1930’s no other broadcasting organization was licensed in the UK but the BBC did face serious competition from the IBC (International Broadcasting Company) who bought blocks of airtime from radio stations based in mainland Europe. These stations followed the American format of broadcasting which was much more focused on entertainment and commercialism than the BBC.

All of the stations except for Radio Luxembourg, were muted during World War Two and the BBC had to adapt its programming to suit the situation. News bulletins about the war and debates were given priority and classical music was broadcast in the evenings. Anne Frank commented in her diary of the effect of radio music on her when in hiding:

There was a beautiful Mozart concert on the radio from six to seven-fifteen; I especially enjoyed the Kleine Nachtmusik. I can hardly bear to listen to in the kitchen, since beautiful music stirs me to the very depths of my soul. (Frank, 1944 p. 250)

Pirate Radio

In 1964 rebellion broke out in the radio industry. The BBC held a monopoly on the industry and was not threatened by any competition; therefore it aired whatever it felt appropriate. In doing this it didn’t provide for one particularly important sector of the music loving public – teenagers. One type of music it didn’t playlist was the new, exciting and radical sounds of rock-and-roll. British veteran DJ Johnnie Walker recalls the effect of rock-and-roll on him as a teenager in his autobiography:

The fantastic noise pumping out into the night air showed me a way to break from conformity. It almost hypnotized me with its promises of freedom and self-expression. And I wasn’t the only one. The seed of sixties’ revolution were being sowed right here, through the eager ears and into the minds of young people, with music as the driving force. (Walker, 2007 p. 16)

The only station within the BBC network that provided some popular music was the Light Programme and it aired contemporary music show “Pick of the Pops” only once a week. It’s important to mention here that the Light Programme was the first station to broadcast using FM (frequency modulation) in 1955 and that this new method of broadcasting offered higher sound quality.

Above: The Light Programme listing in 1945. (Radio Rewind, N.D)

Because the demand for rock-and-roll was so great, businessmen set up radio stations in old, converted boats, docked just outside of Britain’s territorial waters (to escape prosecution). These rebel stations made profits from advertising and were hugely popular. Two famous examples are Radio Caroline and Radio London. Interestingly, Radio Caroline was established by Irish entrepreneur, Ronan O’Rahilly in Dundalk’s Greenore port. Caroline played music all day and therefore was a huge hit in both England and Ireland.

Above: Radio Caroline advert. (Pick and Mix, 2011)

Legalized Radio

Although the pirate stations continued to survive until the nineties, privately owned radio stations obtained licenses to broadcast in the seventies and the number of these commercial stations increased with every decade. The BBC took note of listener’s demands for popular music and adapted their programming to cater for their audience.

FM became the dominant broadcasting method because of its high fidelity and great signal strength, AM broadcasting took a back seat, typically being used for talk and news programming.

Above: BBC Radio One promo (TVArk, N.D)

Internet Radio

The Internet has more recently become an important means of transmitting audio. Internet radio shows are streamed and these are also known as webcasts. These streaming webcasts are like traditional radio because they cannot be paused or replayed and should not be confused with podcasts which are downloaded. Internet shows are usually available to listen to from anywhere in the world.

The very first Internet broadcast took place in 1994 and the first legalized American Internet radio station was created by Edward Lyman which broadcast live on Sonicwave.com 24 hours a day. The sound quality compared to that of AM radio.

Above: Webcasting can be done easily at home. (Hack A Day, 2011).

The success of Sonicwave.com attracted investment and media attention in the late nineties and Internet radio became very popular. According to an article online, Yahoo! Bought Broadcast.com for $5.7 billion in 1999 (Searls, 2002).

Internet broadcasting is closely linked with traditional radio stations these days, broadcasting their shows in real time via their website and using social media websites to keep in touch with listeners. I recently interviewed local DJ Andy Clarke of LMFM Radio and asked him about the place of social media in today’s radio industry.

 I think you’d be stupid not to use the likes of Facebook and Twitter social media now. It used to be, all those years ago, you’d ring the local station and you’d get your request on, you’d get your name on the radio. The texts came along and free texts which is quite handy. But now, I see it myself, you wouldn’t get as many texts as everyone’s now on Facebook . . . it’s instant though which is very, very, very, very good. You can stick up what you’re thinking, you can nearly pre-plan what you’re going to talk about in the next I suppose talk break or link. So if I was thinking “Aw, I’m hungry, what’s good to eat?” I can nearly stick that up on Facebook, it doesn’t go on air, get peoples opinions and then you could air the good comments out of that . . . it’s a lazy prep service for you in a way, but it’s very good to interact with the listeners. . . It’s an extra dimension. (Caffrey, 2012).

(If desired, listen to the entire interview here: Andy Clarke Interview – The Impact of Electronic Broadcasting Media on the Music Industry by Stephanie Caffrey on SoundCloud – Create, record and share your sounds for free.)

Digital Radio

Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is the future of radio broadcasting. It is a new technology and is mainly used in Europe at this point in time. The UK embraced this technology and over 50 BBC services were made available in this format in 2001.

DAB can offer more stations with better reception quality to its listeners that live well within its coverage area and it is more cost efficient than FM. On the flipside, DAB uses digital signal processing which causes an overall delay. This means DAB radios are not in time with live events and can cause a confusing mixture of sound if a user is listening to a broadcast using a combination of analog and digital radios in their house.

Above: Digital Audio receiver. (AV Review, 2007).

Andy Clarke shared his view on DAB in Ireland during my recent interview with him:

 I suppose digital in Ireland hasn’t kicked off just yet and it probably won’t do for another year, if not longer. The UK has kicked off and they really are pushing it over there. In Ireland, they did try to do it a couple of years ago and some of the local stations went for it as a trial basis but then, it didn’t seem to be doing anything for them. People aren’t ready yet for digital radio and we still have analog in cars. Very few, well a lot of people would have digital sets, I have a digital set at home but I’m into the scene so, I suppose it’s an interest but a lot of people have yet to buy and it’s going to cost them money to do so, you know. (Caffrey, 2012)

In a world already hooked on the Internet, the digital platform is ideal for the next generation of radio consumption.

The Symbiotic Relationship

In the 1920’s the popularity of radio initially had a negative effect on the music industry, crippling record sales and putting companies out of business. Morton (2000) explains on page 26:

Record companies welcomed the subsequent transfer of electrical technology from radio and motion pictures to the phonograph industry, but hated the effect these two new forms of entertainment had on the record business. Radio was the biggest threat. On the eve of broadcasting’s debut, between 1914 and 1921, record sales had doubled, largely because of sales of popular music. With the inauguration of network radio in the middle 1920s, the market for popular recordings collapsed, resulting in a number of companies leaving the field or changing ownership. (Morton, 2000)

Because record companies wouldn’t allow the broadcasting of pre-recorded material, musicians were brought in to radio stations and performed music live. Radio stations spent huge amounts of money in an effort to better the production of the original record.

This wasn’t the only reason records were not played much on the radio during this time. The BBC employed its own orchestra and these musicians were part of the Musician’s Union who imposed a ‘needle-time restriction’, decreasing the number of minutes recorded music was allowed air weekly. This sustained the need for live musicians providing them with better job security.

It was in the 1930’s that the relationship between recorded music and radio began to improve, this was due to improvements in radio technology, such as devices that acted as gramophones and radios, but more so because the rise of the disc jockey. DJ’s would introduce the song they were playing and give information about the artist and record. Radio stations had to keep a huge supply of records to keep up with the popular artists and this in itself helped keep record sales steady.

Above: John Peel helped launch new artists. (Tumblr, 2012).

Playing the records on air gave free advertising and promotion to artists and record labels and this in turn generated listenership loyalty for the station. Because of this symbiotic relationship, radio stations did not have to pay royalties to artists when their music was played on the air.

Payola

When record companies noticed radio play influencing sales, they struck up illegal deals with radio stations and DJ’s called payolas. These illegal deals involved the record company paying for repeated play of the music they wished to sell. The more time a song was repeated on the radio, the more popular it became and the more records it sold.

In his study on the symbiotic relation of the two industries, Stan Liebowitz (2004) argues that this means of practice benefited the promoted artists and took sales away from others.

Above: The definition of payola! (Forowebgratis, 2007).

Why Do People Listen to the Radio?

Radio provides a more personal, intimate and thought provoking experience to the individual than other media outlets. Television combines audio with visual, feeding imagery directly to our minds, so we merely just absorb what the director wants us to absorb. Radio just provides the audio and leaves the imagery making to us, whether a DJ is interviewing a band, plugging a concert, describing the weather, reading the news or talking about the current state of affairs in our daily lives. Radio travels with us easily, we can listen on the move, driving a car, going for a run, even cleaning the house. We can listen and still carry out our lives tasks, whereas when we watch television, we have to give it our 100% undivided attention or risk crashing the car, running onto the wrong side of the road or knocking over that expensive vase!

 The relationship the listener has with radio is unlike that with any other media.  Radio is almost like a friend.  It can be there burbling in the background when you are busy and wherever you are busy but when you get those rare moments alone when you can ease your shoulders just a bit, radio softly turns up its volume inside you and your mind can be transported elsewhere for a few moments while carrying on with your life. (Penwald, 2012)

There are two different types of listening when it comes down to the music consumer tuning in the radio to their favorite station. The first type is listening for pleasure, where the music fan listens in purely for enjoyment, having confidence in their station of choice that will play music they enjoy. According to his paper in 2004:

 The fact that individuals spend, on average, almost three hours per day listening to the radio would seem to imply that there is in fact a rather important consumption element in radio listening. (Liebowitz, 2004)

This may be viewed as being harmful to the recorded industry because in this case, radio replaces or substitutes the need for buying the original recording. Why would the casual music fan pay hard-earned cash for a full-length album, when the two or possibly three songs they enjoy most on that particular album are available on the air for free listening?

The second type is listening for purchase, where the music fan listens in to discover new music to add to their personal record collection. Liebowitz calls this the exposure effect and states:

Note that the exposure effect doesn’t necessarily have an impact different than the substitution effect. Learning more about a product prior to purchase may allow consumers to derive great utility from any single purchase. At any given price, however, they may purchase fewer units because they become quickly satisfied. Producers, therefore, may discover that their revenues fall when consumers can better sample the products. (Liebowitz, 2004, p 97)

Statistics

Obtaining updated and reliable figures to provide evidence for the effect of radio on the music industry in the UK has proven difficult and expensive so I will use Liebowitz’s graph from his paper to demonstrate record sales in US dollars for the first half of the 20th century as seen below.

Above: Record sales in 1983 dollars (Liebowitz, S. 2004)
Above: Album sales in the UK from the seventies onwards. (Kovtr, 2010)

Is the iPod Killing the Radio?

We’ve seen in my previous paragraphs that music and radio have a positive symbiotic relationship but a new development in music technology is said to threaten the radio industry-the iPod/MP3 player.

Most of us own one of these devices and use it on a daily basis. It’s the control element of the iPod that threatens the radio business- ordinary people can choose the media they wish to consume in a handy, pocket-sized device. Advertisements can be blitzed and undesirable songs can be skipped. This idea of user control must have radio corporates shaking in their boots.

The latest iPod Nano includes a built-in FM receiver which allows the user to pause, and rewind live radio- great for FM and commercial radio but what about DAB? This attribute is a big disadvantage and works against the next chapter of radio history instead of with it. After all, FM radio is expected to be removed by 2015, leaving DAB as the main means of radio consumption.

Above: The latest iPod Nano boasts an integrated camera and FM receiver. (The Guardian, 2009).

Conclusion

It’s not easy to tell whether radio has a positive or negative impact on the record industry due to lack of statistics and research. Despite the initial decline in record sales in the 1930’s, record sales have gone strength to strength since. The music industry is currently threatened by a bigger force; illegal file sharing, but this has little to do with the subject at hand.

The future looks bright for radio and music. Radio has ever been the unseen companion to the music listener and with the world consuming social media websites on a daily basis, discussing their favorite music, digital is the obvious path for radio to turn to next. As long as the radio continues to generate positive messages to the public and interact, there is no reason why either industry should be threatened by the digital format. 

References

Andrew, R. (2012). The History of AM/FM Radio, [online], available: http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/125530/computers/the_history_of_amfm_radio.html [accessed 29 April, 2012].

AV Review. (2007). Digital Audio Receiver. [online], available: http://www.avreview.co.uk/news/article/mps/uan/1239 [accessed 01 May, 2012].

BBC. (2012). Inside the BBC – Mission and Values, [online], available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/aboutthebbc/insidethebbc/whoweare/mission_and_values/ [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Bowblog. (2011). The Théâtrophone. [online], available: http://bowblog.com/2011/08/02/steampunk-radio/ [accessed 29 April, 2012].

British Telephones Online. (2010). Electrophone System, [online], available: http://www.britishtelephones.com/electrophone.htm [accessed 29 April, 2012].

British Telephones. (2010). Electrophone Users Enjoying A Theatre Scene In 1908. [online], available: http://www.britishtelephones.com/electrophone.htm [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Caffrey, S. (2012). Interview with Andy Clarke, 01 May 2012. [Cassette recording in author’s possession]

Foriwebgratis. (2007). The Definition of Payola! [online], available: http://www.foroswebgratis.com/mensaje-definici%C3%B3n_de_payola-77129-596161-1-1923267.htm [accessed 03 May, 2012].

Frank, A. (1945). Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, Ver. c, London: Penguin Books.

Hack A Day. (2011). Webcasting Can Be Done Easily At Home. [online], available: http://hackaday.com/2011/03/12/building-your-internet-radio-empire/ [accessed 30 April, 2012].

Kovtr. (2010). Album Sales in the UK From the Seventies Onwards. [online], available: http://kovtr.com/wordpress/?tag=tera-consultants [accessed 03 May, 2012].

Liebowitz, S. J, (2004). Record Sales in 1983 Dollars The Elusive Symbiosis: The Impact Of Radio On The Record Industry, EBook PP [online] available: http://www.serci.org/docs/liebowitz.pdf  p. 105, illus

McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: Signet Books.

Morton, D. (2002). Off the Record: The Technology and Culture of Sound Recording in America. New Jersey: Rugters University Press.

Penwald, I, L. (2012). iPod Didn’t Kill The Radio Star (But The BBC Might), [online], 24 March, available: http://ian-luke.com/?p=1335#axzz1tcFHFUqP [accessed 03 May, 2012].

Pick and Mix. (2011). Radio Caroline Advert. [online], available: http://alicemarysblog.wordpress.com/2011/04/28/king-of-the-pirates-radio-caroline-is-forty-seven-but-still-fit/ [accessed 30 April, 2012].

Radio Rewind. (N.D). The Light Programme Listing in 1945. [online], available: http://www.radiorewind.co.uk/radio2/light_programme_launch.htm [accessed 30 April, 2012].

Searls, D. (2002). Why Are So Many Internet Radio Stations Still On The Air? [online], available: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6218 [accessed 01 May, 2012].

The Guardian. (2010). The Latest iPod Nano Boasts an Integrated Camera and FM Receiver. [online], available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/organgrinder/2009/sep/10/ipod-nano-digital-radio [accessed 03 May, 2012].

Tumblr. (2012). John Peel Helped Launch New Artists. [online], available: http://pitchfork.tumblr.com/post/22204110425/legendary-bbc-dj-john-peels-extensive-record [accessed 03 May, 2012].

TVArk. (N.D). BBC Radio One Promo. [online], available: http://www2.tv-ark.org.uk/bbcother/promotions.html [accessed 30 April, 2012].

Walker, J. (2007). Johnnie Walker: The Autobiography, London: Michael Joseph.

Wired. (2008). The Rising Popularity of Radio. [online], available: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/09/dayintech_0929 [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Bibliography

Ala-Fossi, M., Lax, S., O’Neill, B., Jauert, P., Shaw, H. (2008). The Future of Radio is Still Digital-But Which One? Expert Perspectives and Future Scenarios for Radio Media in 2015. Journal of Radio and Audio Media. 15:1, p.  4-25.

Alfred, A. (2008). Sept. 29,1920: Radio Goes Commercial. [online], available: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/09/dayintech_0929 [accessed 03 May, 2012].

Allan, T. (1975). Radio Caroline, The Official Story. Jumbo Records and Tapes.

 Ambert, C. (2003). Promoting the Culture Sector through Job Creation and Small Enterprise Development in SADC Countries: The Music Industry. Geneva, International Labour Office, Geneva.

Andrew, R. (2012). The History of AM/FM Radio, [online], available: http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/125530/computers/the_history_of_amfm_radio.html [accessed 29 April, 2012].

AV Review. (2007). Digital Audio Receiver. [online], available: http://www.avreview.co.uk/news/article/mps/uan/1239 [accessed 01 May, 2012].

BBC. (2012). Inside the BBC – Mission and Values, [online], available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/aboutthebbc/insidethebbc/whoweare/mission_and_values/ [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Berry, R. (2006). Will the iPod Kill the Radio Star? Profiling Podcasting as Radio. Sunderland, University of Sunderland, United Kingdom.

Bowblog. (2011). The Théâtrophone. [online], available: http://bowblog.com/2011/08/02/steampunk-radio/ [accessed 29 April, 2012].

British Telephones Online. (2010). Electrophone System, [online], available: http://www.britishtelephones.com/electrophone.htm [accessed 29 April, 2012].

British Telephones. (2010). Electrophone Users Enjoying A Theatre Scene In 1908. [online], available: http://www.britishtelephones.com/electrophone.htm [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Caffrey, S. (2012). Interview with Andy Clarke, 01 May 2012. [Cassette recording in author’s possession]

Comyn, A. (2012). One-Time Pirate Now Prince of Local Radio. Eddie Caffrey in Conversation. Drogheda Independent, 11 April, pp. 26-27.

Cumberland, R. (N.D). Music Business Timeline. 150 Years of Technology, Radio, Recording and Music. [online], available: http://www.bemuso.com/musicbiz/musicbusinesstimeline.html [accessed 25 April, 2012].

Demerjian, D. (2007). Will Digital Radio Boom in U.S? [online], available: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/01/72514  [accessed 01 May, 2012].

Dertouszos, J. (2008). Radio Airplay and the Record Industry: An Economic Analysis. USA, National Association of Broadcasters, USA.

Flint, T. (2002). On The Record. Running Your Own Record Label: Part 3. [online], available: http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/nov02/articles/diylabel3.asp [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Foriwebgratis. (2007). The Definition of Payola! [online], available: http://www.foroswebgratis.com/mensaje-definici%C3%B3n_de_payola-77129-596161-1-1923267.htm [accessed 03 May, 2012].

Frank, A. (1945). Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, Ver. c, London: Penguin Books.

GrabStats. (2008). Music Industry Statistics/Music Industry Stats. [online], available: http://grabstats.com/statcategorymain.asp?StatSubCatID=75&submit=Submit&StatCatID=9 [accessed 04 May, 2012].

Hack A Day. (2011). Webcasting Can Be Done Easily At Home. [online], available: http://hackaday.com/2011/03/12/building-your-internet-radio-empire/ [accessed 30 April, 2012].

Hall, S. (2004). FMBQ Thinks iPod Ban Will Save Radio Industry. [online], available: http://www.adrants.com/2004/12/fmbq-thinks-ipod-ban-will-save-radio.php [accessed 01 May, 2012].

Jones, S. (2000). Music and the Internet. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom.

Kahney, L. (2007). Apple Special Event: iPod with Digital Radio Could Be A Satelitte Radio Killer. [online], available: http://www.cultofmac.com/1185/apple-special-event-ipod-with-digital-radio-could-be-a-satellite-radio-killer/ [accessed 01 May, 2012].

Kovtr. (2010). Album Sales in the UK From the Seventies Onwards. [online], available: http://kovtr.com/wordpress/?tag=tera-consultants [accessed 03 May, 2012].

Kretschmer, M., Klimis, G, M., Wallis, R. (2001). Music in Electronic Markets: Am Empirical Study. London, City University Business School, United Kingdom.

Lee, T.H. (1998). A Nonlinear History of Radio. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom.

Lemelson-mit. (1998). Inventor of the Week Archive: Lee DeForest. [online], available: http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/deforest.html [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Liebowitz, S. J, (2004). Record Sales in 1983 Dollars The Elusive Symbiosis: The Impact Of Radio On The Record Industry, EBook PP [online] available: http://www.serci.org/docs/liebowitz.pdf  p. 105, illus.

MacMillian, D. (2009). The Music Industry’s New Internet Problem. [online], available: http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/mar2009/tc2009035_000194.htm [accessed 04 May, 2012].

McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: Signet Books.

Meisel J, B., Sullivan, T, S. (2002). The Impact of the Internet on the Law and Economics of the Music Industry, Vol. 4 Iss: 2 pp. 16 – 22, Illinois, Department of Economics and Finace, Southern Illinois University, Illimois, USA.

Mishkind, B. (2004). This is the International Section of the Broadcast Archive. Irish Broadcasting. [online], available: http://www.oldradio.com/archives/international/ireland.html [accessed 28 April, 2012].

Morton, D. (2002). Off the Record: The Technology and Culture of Sound Recording in America. New Jersey: Rugters University Press.

Nolan, H. (2008). Radio Killing the iPod! Except for Money Wise. [online], available: http://gawker.com/5066381/radio-killing-the-ipod-except-for-money+wise [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Page, W., Carey, C. (2010). Adding up the UK Music Industry for 2009. PRS For Music. 20, p. 1-9.

Penwald, I, L. (2012). iPod Didn’t Kill The Radio Star (But The BBC Might), [online], 24 March, available: http://ian-luke.com/?p=1335#axzz1tcFHFUqP [accessed 03 May, 2012].

Pick and Mix. (2011). Radio Caroline Advert. [online], available: http://alicemarysblog.wordpress.com/2011/04/28/king-of-the-pirates-radio-caroline-is-forty-seven-but-still-fit/ [accessed 30 April, 2012].

Radio Insights. (2010). How Much Do People Listen? Really? Radio Insight. [online], 7, April, available: http://www.radioinsights.com/2010/04/how-much-do-people-listen.html [accessed 25 April,012].

Radio Rewind. (N.D). The Light Programme Listing in 1945. [online], available: http://www.radiorewind.co.uk/radio2/light_programme_launch.htm [accessed 30 April, 2012].

Searls, D. (2002). Why Are So Many Internet Radio Stations Still On The Air? [online], available: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6218 [accessed 01 May, 2012].

Shapiro, J. (2012). Public Radio Is Media’s Future. You Heard It Right. [online], available: http://schedule.sxsw.com/2012/events/event_IAP12692 [accessed 25 April, 2012].

Smith, M. (2005). UK Radio: A Brief History – Part 1. How It All Began. [online] available: http://www.mds975.co.uk/Content/ukradio.html [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Sonos. (2012). The History of Radio [online], 6 February, available: http://blog.sonos.com/culture/the-history-of-radio/ [accessed 25 April, 2012].

The Guardian. (2010). The Latest iPod Nano Boasts an Integrated Camera and FM Receiver. [online], available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/organgrinder/2009/sep/10/ipod-nano-digital-radio [accessed 03 May, 2012].

Throsby, D. (2002). The Music Industry in the New Millennium: Global and Local Perspectives. Paris, The Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity, Division of Arts and Cultural Enterprise, UNESCO, Paris.

Through the Wires. (N.D). Radio Invention. [online], available: http://library.thinkquest.org/27887/gather/history/radio.shtml [accessed 30 April, 2012].

Tumblr. (2012). John Peel Helped Launch New Artists. [online], available: http://pitchfork.tumblr.com/post/22204110425/legendary-bbc-dj-john-peels-extensive-record [accessed 03 May, 2012].

TVArk. (N.D). BBC Radio One Promo. [online], available: http://www2.tv-ark.org.uk/bbcother/promotions.html [accessed 30 April, 2012].

Walker, J. (2007). Johnnie Walker: The Autobiography, London: Michael Joseph.Willans, J. (2012). Mad for it! How Digital Tunes Have Made us Music Addicts. [online], available: http://nokiaconnects.com/2012/04/23/mad-for-it-how-digital-tunes-have-made-us-music-addicts/ [accessed 25 April, 2012].

Wired. (2008). The Rising Popularity of Radio. [online], available: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/09/dayintech_0929 [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Wuzumi. (2010). The Impact of Radio on Pop Music. [online], available: http://wuzumi.hubpages.com/hub/The-Impact-of-Radio-on-Pop-Music [accessed 29 April, 2012].

Advertisements

One thought on “The Impact of Electronic Broadcasting Media on the Music Industry”

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s